5 of the Coolest Partnerships Between Animals The Science of Flint's Water Crisis 2 days ago   12:11

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This Valentine’s Day, send a little love to your bacterial buddies! Our microbes keep us healthy, but some bacteria give their animal companions superpowers, like immunity to poison, or even invisibility!

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Sources:

Aphids
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.17
http://web.uconn.edu/mcbstaff/graf/Aphids.html
https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/barley/aphid-feeding-damage-cereal-crops
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2974440/
https://books.google.ca/books?id=FzBs_QgihRIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1042/BC20070135
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105579039790419X
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3041126/
https://www.pnas.org/content/109/20/E1230/1
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/12265071.2001.9647599
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jgam1955/42/1/42_1_17/_article/-char/ja/

Desert woodrats
https://academic.oup.com/icb/article/57/4/723/3896233?guestAccessKey=1d5fd2a3-f361-4f95-85b2-6fba5419fa2d
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ele.12329
https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081%5B2067:IDITTC%5D2.0.CO%3B2
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01165/full
https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp85-c4.pdf
https://www.jstor.org/stable/1378444?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081%5B2067:IDITTC%5D2.0.CO%3B2
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1954740

Clams
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC21444/
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14772000.2016.1252438
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00569130
https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro1992
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00114-014-1165-3
http://www.whoi.edu/feature/history-hydrothermal-vents/pdf/PLonsdaleDSRv24.pdf
https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-9-585

Blue-ringed octopus
https://oceanconservancy.org/blog/2017/03/13/the-blue-ringed-octopus-small-but-deadly/
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00391147
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/animal-guide-blue-ringed-octopus/2177/
http://www.sfjo-lamer.org/la_mer/22-3_4/maruyama_noguchi.pdf
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166445X1830465X
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2857372/

Bobtail squid
https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(08)01137-8.pdf
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00227-003-1285-3
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3843225/
https://www.pnas.org/content/102/8/3004.short

Images:

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%E3%82%A2%E3%83%96%E3%83%A9%E3%83%A0%E3%82%B7_(17341041222).jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2012.10.19.-25-Mannheim_Vogelstang-Blattlaeuse.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Journal.pbio.0050126.g001.png
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:L-Tryptophan_-_L-Tryptophan.svg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Schizaphis_graminum_usda_(cropped).jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Desert_Packrat_(Neotoma_lepida)_eating_a_peanu_01.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Creosote-Bush_(4485551500).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mojave_vista.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1st_Place_-_Spring_Storm_in_the_Great_Basin_(7186595011).jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Desert_Packrat_(Neotoma_lepida)_in_a_Century_Plant_(Agave_americana).JPG
https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/20371479442/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Champagne_vent_white_smokers.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Muscheln_mit_Sipho_Nahaufnahme.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bubbles_hires.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hawaiian_Bobtail_squid.tiff
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Euprymna_scolopes,_South_shore_of_Oahu,_Hawaii.tiff
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Comments 494 Comments

gunzakimbo
They produce nourishment, help digest said supplements AND prevent me from getting sick?

Sounds like super powers to me!
Auxiliary Cord
I can’t sleep sing me a lullaby
Amber Hansson
So basically buchnera are following the same evolutionary pathway as mitochondria and chloroplasts
Daniel McDavid
8:03 Genera.
DemonSheyd500025
How about having a nice relationship with rocks? :b I had one today when I picked out a nice little rock that was flat and used it to get smaller rocks out from the crevices in my shoes. XD
Thomas Fisher
Fun fact: as long as you're not allergic to creosote, it's pretty safe to eat or make tea out of if you're human XD
GECKman88
At what point to bacteria just incorperate themselves into your DNA as a cell? I'm willing to bet that some human genes used to be bacteria or possibly even viruses.
Nathaniel Anderson
I have caught on octopus before. They are very intelligent creatures. They octopus seemed to be trying to communicate with me, and as I looked into her eyes, it seemed as if she was asking me to let her go. Not only did I feel the overwhelming compassionate emotion for the octopus, it would repeatedly sneak out of the cooler and start walking twords the edge of the ship. She knew her way home. I guess this is why most people who hunt octopus, kill them immediately after catching them.
If they were to suddenly start to evolve, to live long lives, of 100 years or more, they would start to work together, and develop a system to share and eventually record information about their existence, and ask themselves why they are here, what is their purpose in the universe, and they may even become builders of machines that let them explore the earth, dry land, and then space. They would develop a recorded history, which would include why humans are their enemies, and the crewel ways that they have been treated, and eaten by us. And how much we have destroyed their habitats. Evolution has some surprises in store for us.
audrod81
These interdependent relationships are just way too complex to have simply evolved by chance! Intelligent design, maybe? You don't need to be a bible-thumping fundamentalist creationist to have this possibility cross your mind!
Brendan Messer
Yay!🤩😘😍😍🥰🤣🙃🙂😘😄🙃😖🍌
Zes
no such thing as mutualx or relatiox or coolx or valentx or impresx or succesx or weird xofancyx, interex or not, relatx, can do, any relatx any no matter what and any be perfect
Arth
If something is produced inside the body then it isn't vitamin by definition.
John Archie Ablanque
0:31 clown fish and sea ANENOMES?
Am I the only one who heard it?
Alyssa Mingorance
Can there be a video about the types of bacteria that live inside of us?
Kathleen Faris
It's valintines day people all around the world celebrating love so that means we're going to be talking about bacteria Oh my god Hank how did you know
Jamilah Mitchell
This my favorite host from this channel
angel whispers
or more practically... take your prebiotic and pro biotic. your guts will thank you
dylan
Wait, so we could possibly target bacteria with antibiotics to control aphids instead of using pesticide. That might reduce a lot of collateral damage if it's narrow scope enough, like by horizontal gene transfer using a plasmid.
Jesus Mark
So that the source of creosol?
Walter Loehrmann
There is a plant in south america that houses a garrison of ants for defence in exchange for liquids.
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The Science of Flint's Water Crisis 5 of the Coolest Partnerships Between Animals 2 days ago   12:17

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The water crisis in Flint, Michigan is a prime example of science being ignored, unknown, or even misused. Here's the chemistry behind how so many things went wrong.

Hosted by: Hank Green

SciShow has a spinoff podcast! It's called SciShow Tangents. Check it out at https://www.scishowtangents.org
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Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow
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Sources:

https://www.michigan.gov/documents/treasury/Edward_Kurtz_Contract_394722_7.pdf
https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/04/20/465545378/lead-laced-water-in-flint-a-step-by-step-look-at-the-makings-of-a-crisis
https://www.michigan.gov/som/0,4669,7-192-29942_34762-381701--,00.html

Lead pipes
https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2007.113555
https://www.awwa.org/resources-tools/public-affairs/press-room/press-release/articleid/4074/lead-ser.aspx
https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/lead/index.cfm

Corrosion Protection
https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-03/documents/occtmarch2016.pdf
https://cen.acs.org/articles/94/i7/Lead-Ended-Flints-Tap-Water.html

Chloride & Chlorine
http://www.corrosionjournal.org/doi/abs/10.5006/1.3600449?code=NACE-prem-site
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-does-chlorine-added-t/
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273749642_Comparison_of_Chlorine_and_Chloramines_on_Lead_Release_from_Copper_Pipe_Rigs
https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.highlight/abstract/22
https://www.cityofflint.com/wp-content/uploads/Flint-TTHM-Operational-Evaluation-Report-August-2015.pdf
https://www.cityofflint.com/wp-content/uploads/TTHM-Notification-Final.pdf
https://www.cdc.gov/safewater/publications_pages/thm.pdf

Legionnaires
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5353852/
http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/02/was-flint-s-deadly-legionnaires-epidemic-caused-low-chlorine-levels-water-supply
https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/02/05/582482024/lethal-pneumonia-outbreak-caused-by-low-chlorine-in-flint-water
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/article/flint-water-crisis-deaths-likely-surpass-official-toll/
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/01/31/1718679115

Protocols
https://www.michigan.gov/documents/snyder/FWATF_FINAL_REPORT_21March2016_517805_7.pdf
http://flintwaterstudy.org/2015/08/hazardous-waste-levels-of-lead-found-in-a-flint-households-water/
http://www.michiganradio.org/post/states-instructions-sampling-drinking-water-lead-not-best-practice
https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-11/documents/drinking_water_sample_collection.pdf
https://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/Lead_Copper_Sampling_Instructions_329915_7.pdf
http://flintwaterstudy.org/information-for-flint-residents/results-for-citizen-testing-for-lead-300-kits/
http://www.cescenter.com/documents/Regulatory%20Limits%20for%20Contaminants%20of%20Concern.pdf

Lead Poisoning
https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/126/1/5/299373
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19644200

Conclusion
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/chemical-study-ground-zero-house-flint-water-crisis-180962030/
https://www.cityofflint.com/wp-content/uploads/Adding-Extra-Phosphate-to-Flint-Water-09-Copy.pdf
http://www.michiganradio.org/post/flints-lead-pipe-replacement-program-moves-forward-under-new-management

Images:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lead_pipe_-_Bath_Roman_Baths.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DSC00125_-_Tubi_di_piombo_romani_-_Foto_di_G._Dall%27Orto.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flint_skyline2.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Severe_Pneumonia_Caused_by_Legionella_pneumophila_Serogroup_11,_Italy.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Legionella_pneumophila_01.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Iron(III)_chloride_hexahydrate.jpg

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