When Humans Were Prey When Sharks Swam the Great 1 day ago   09:52

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Not too long ago, our early human ancestors were under constant threat of attack from predators. And it turns out that this difficult chapter in our history may be responsible for the adaptations that allowed us to become so successful.

Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the illustrations of the Taung Child. You can find more of Julio's work here: https://252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda

Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان , Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan

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References:
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/taung-child
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/paranthropus-robustus
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/oh-8
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4729050.stm
http://time.com/5424347/remains-neanderthal-giant-bird-poland/
http://scienceinpoland.pap.pl/en/news/news%2C31287%2Cscientists-discover-oldest-human-remains-poland-they-are-over-100000-years-old.html
Berger, L. R. (2006). Brief communication: Predatory bird damage to the Taung type-skull of Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925. American Journal of Physical Anthropology: The Official Publication of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 131(2), 166-168.
Berger, L. R., & Clarke, R. J. (1995). Eagle involvement in accumulation of the Taung child fauna. Journal of Human Evolution, 29(3), 275-299.
Berger, L. R., & McGraw, W. S. (2007). Further evidence for eagle predation of, and feeding damage on, the Taung child. South African Journal of Science, 103(11-12), 496-498.
Blumenschine, R. J., Stanistreet, I. G., Njau, J. K., Bamford, M. K., Masao, F. T., Albert, R. M., ... & Fernández-Jalvo, Y. (2012). Environments and hominin activities across the FLK Peninsula during Zinjanthropus times (1.84 Ma), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 63(2), 364-383.
Brain, C. K. (1970). New finds at the Swartkrans australopithecine site. Nature, 225(5238), 1112.
Brain, C. K. (1983). The hunters or the hunted?: an introduction to African cave taphonomy. University of Chicago Press.
Bunn, H. T. (1991). A taphonomic perspective on the archaeology of human origins. Annual Review of Anthropology, 20(1), 433-467.
Dart, R. A. (1949). The predatory implemental technique of Australopithecus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 7(1), 1-38.
Dart, R. A. (1953). The predatory transition from ape to man. Brill.
Dart, R. A. (1958). The Minimal Bone-Breccia Content of Makapansgat and the Australopithecine Predatory Habit. American Anthropologist, 60(5), 923-931.
Hart, D. (2018). Man the hunted: Primates, predators, and human evolution. Routledge.
Hart, D., & Sussman, R. W. (2011). The influence of predation on primate and early human evolution: impetus for cooperation. In Origins of Altruism and Cooperation (pp. 19-40). Springer, New York, NY.
Njau, J. K., & Blumenschine, R. J. (2006). A diagnosis of crocodile feeding traces on larger mammal bone, with fossil examples from the Plio-Pleistocene Olduvai Basin, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 50(2), 142-162.
Njau, J. K., & Blumenschine, R. J. (2012). Crocodylian and mammalian carnivore feeding traces on hominid fossils from FLK 22 and FLK NN 3, Plio-Pleistocene, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of human evolution, 63(2), 408-417.
Pickering, T. R., Schick, K. D., & Toth, N. P. (Eds.). (2007). Breathing life into fossils: taphonomic studies in honor of CK (Bob) Brain. Gosport, IN: Stone Age Institute Press.
Tobias, P. V. (1990). When and by whom was the Taung skull discovered. Para conocer al hombre: homenaje a Santiago Genovése. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autonoma da Mexico, 207-213.
Washburn, S. L. (1957). Australopithecines: the hunters or the hunted?. American Anthropologist, 59(4), 612-614.
Zuberbühler, K., & Jenny, D. (2002). Leopard predation and primate evolution. Journal of Human Evolution, 43(6), 873-886.
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Comments 2639 Comments

Carlos Coreno
Bro we werent monkeys🙄 if we were we wouldnt naturally have a fear toward animals. Were humans a whole different species
Indrid Cold
Humans are still prey when they enter into the ocean. When a human enters the ocean, they are on the menu.
MZA Method Man
"GET THE STRAP, KA, KA, KA"
Jose Garcia
My hold life is a theory.🤐😖😭
Siranat usawasutsakorn
Now, it's time for revenge!
-Some meme nerd.
Mitchell Neuhoff
We still are prey in some ways it’s humbling knowing we’re not completely on top.
Phillip Washington
Gotta watch this...
ShxdyNeo
How bold of you to assume a flying being could top me in the food chain
Asiano Casino
Christians believe in evolution right?
Alex G
Eats chicken nuggets... How the tables of turned...😝
TTYL NRN
I believe this video. Why? Because of crazy chickens from my childhood. We had chickens taller then 2feet. Most neighborhood dogs were scared of them chickens.
Dan Rooney
Most humans are still prey.
Vishnujana Dasa
Humans are naturally anatomically post. Eaters.

Horses and humans and other “sweaters” are all herbivores. Humans like herbivores and frugivores (which we more closely resemble) have alkaline saliva (ptyalin) whereas omnivores/carnivores have no carb-digesting enzymes. Similarly humans have smooth tongues like plant eaters and additionally we use the tongue to shovel food in like frugivores. Omnivores/carnivores have rough tongues-especially meat eaters for tearing flesh). We have simple livers and large salivary glands like plant eaters as opposed to the complex (extremely complex for carnivores) livers and small glands. Brian chemistry is different and many other things. Again our molars, incisors, and “canines” are different from meat eaters and we have well-developed [email protected] for chewing whereas omni/carnivores have reduced muscles for wipe mouth gapes as they generally chomp* up and down and swallow their food in large chunks (*meat eaters jaws as mentioned chimp up and down generally and can’t move sideways). The jaws of plant eaters are the same but different from meager eaters both Omni and carnivores, which are similar to each other. Omnivores are generally carnivores who eat some plants. There are many other points too. Human instinct is to feel compassion for hurt animals (because we have advanced understanding such as empathy that interestingly enough animals also share often). We don’t salivate at dead corpses. But we do for grapes and oranges etc. Fruits and leafy greens are our ideal food. The health benefit even have been known for millennia.


https://consciousnourishment.org/2014/03/25/6-raw-foodists-over-50-that-look-decades-younger/
The Bug Lord
They're not birds! They're dragons!
Yanuchi Uchiha: Anime, Games and Ramdomness
*Looks slowly at the sparrow standing on the tree next to my window*
Ralph Gonzalez
Yo, who else grew up with PBS as a kid?
gokul balagopal
At that time there were carnivorous animals stronger than as, so we surely you would have been preyed upon
Valini S
So birds ate us in the beginning?🤔 now we eat birds ... hmmm time to enjoy that bucket of wings
Small Jeff
When birbs were huge and ate your children
Rafael Alvarez
Scavengers once the lightning started a fire tye scavemgers got down from trees with fire they can travel at night and cook the meat and got smarter by breaking protein down fire which speed up evolution brains got smarter with hunting started language
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When Sharks Swam the Great When Humans Were Prey 1 day ago   12:41

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Check out Origin of Everything: https://ufl.ae/profile/KSyR8x9zT2Cbnn96PVdWTIZm

If you’ve ever been to, or lived in, or even flown over the central swath of North America, then you’ve seen the remnants of what was a uniquely fascinating environment. Scientists call it the Western Interior Seaway, and at its greatest extent, it ran from the Caribbean Sea to the Canadian Arctic.

Thanks to Dmitry Bogdanov, Nobu Tamura, C.R. Scotese, NASA and the many others listed throughout the video for making their images available to use.

Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:

Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, سلطان الخليفي, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan

If you'd like to support the channel, head over to http://patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards!

Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet?
Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/eonsshow
Twitter - https://twitter.com/eonsshow
Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/eonsshow/

References:
Oceans of Kansas: A Natural History of the Western Interior Seaway (Second Edition) by Michael J. Everhart.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.2014.838573?journalCode=ujvp20#.U8BQ-61OURY
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259517413_Cretaceous_Eustasy_Revisited
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Joshua_Slattery/publication/280641436_EARLY_CRETACEOUS_TO_PALEOCENE_PALEOGEOGRAPHY_OF_THE_WESTERN_INTERIOR_SEAWAY_THE_INTERACTION_OF_EUSTASY_AND_TECTONISM/links/55c0927208aed621de13c50d/EARLY-CRETACEOUS-TO-PALEOCENE-PALEOGEOGRAPHY-OF-THE-WESTERN-INTERIOR-SEAWAY-THE-INTERACTION-OF-EUSTASY-AND-TECTONISM.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321632109_The_Late_Cretaceous_Western_Interior_Seaway_as_a_model_for_oxygenation_change_in_epicontinental_restricted_basins
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.2011.601714
https://www.jstor.org/stable/1306568
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/003101829090110S
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/pp1561
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/278/1706/681.short
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02990187
https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/44/11/903/195080/temperature-and-salinity-of-the-late-cretaceous?redirectedFrom=fulltext
https://www.rushcounty.org/PostRockMuseum/PostRockMuseum2.htm

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